- Global Energy Infrastructure
Base layer control is one of the most important stages of a process control system hierarchy for refinery applications.
Environment & Safety / Refining / Engineering & Design / Furnaces / Heat Transfer / Hydrocracking / Hydrogen / Safety
Historically, there has been a perception in the industry that it is not safe to include a steam generator in the high-pressure loop of a hydrocracker.
Environment & Safety / Petrochemicals / Process Control / Refining / Environment / Equipment / Furnaces / Loss Prevention / Management / Safety
Flares are prominent in hydrocarbon processing operations. From afar, they can be spotted burning with a high or low flame, supported by a tall steel structure
Furnaces / Heat Transfer / Engineering & Design / Environment & Safety / Equipment / Maintenance & Reliability / Refining / Process Optimization / Information Systems
Process heaters are essential pieces of equipment in the refining and petrochemical industry that are used to heat hydrocarbons to a desired temperature.
Environment & Safety / Carbon Management / Furnaces / Greenhouse Gases / Loss Prevention / Maintenance & Reliability / Refining / Safety
Flare systems are used in refineries and chemical plants as a last line of defense for the plant by burning all unwanted gases and liquid during any upset or emergency condition.
Environment & Safety / Process Optimization / Project Management / Refining / Boilers / Carbon Management / Catalysts / Economics / Engineering & Design / Environment / Furnaces / Gasoline / Heat Transfer / Loss Prevention / Naphtha / Octane / Products / Reactors / Asia/Pacific
India, which is the third-largest economy in the world, is home to nearly 18% of the world’s population (nearly 1.4 B).
Process tubes in refining applications are typically steel alloy (ASTM A335 P22, P5 or P9), which contain 2.25%, 5% and 9% Cr, respectively. These grades oxidize at operating temperatures, and scale will grow continuously on the surface, often reaching 2 mm in thickness in higher-temperature/high-heat-flux units. The layers of scale are very insulating and represent a significant barrier to conductive heat transfer to the process.
Process engineers strive to recover as much energy as is practically possible from the available process and utility streams within the constraint of the plant. To achieve this goal, traditional—and sometimes non-traditional—methods are utilized. In a steam cracker, light olefins are considered the highest-value products, and utilizing “cold energy,”
Achieving effective catalyst regeneration requires a process that produces a very high level of heat in a very efficient manner. Over the years, several different approaches have been taken to create this required heat. Traditional steam has been a popular choice, as has heated transfer media. However, these methods have limitations.
All the book learning in the world will fail if we do not use common sense. We could also say that we need to think things through and should recognize that intuitive logic can lead us astray. If that sounds like semantic banter, let us zero in on three practical field examples that illustrate the issues at hand.
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Construction Boxscore: Project Spotlight
Long Son Petrochemicals Complex
Long Son, Vietnam
Siam Cement Group