January 2014


Special Report: Natural Gas Developments

Consider new designs for offshore LNG regasification terminals
Bulte, A., Foster Wheeler

The projected growth in global gas demand—specifically, where LNG imports are needed to meet demand—will require faster execution of LNG regasification terminals.

Choose the best refrigeration technology for small-scale LNG production
Kohler, T., Bruentrup, M., Linde Engineering; Key, R. D., Edvardsson, T., Linde Process Plants Inc.

A frequent question is which refrigeration technology is the best for small-scale LNG production. Here, a broad range of aspects and guidelines for which is best suited for what type of application is covered.

The ethane addiction: How long will the US advantage last?
Wanichko, J., T.A. Cook Consultants Inc.

The US petrochemical price advantage gained from shale is well known, but the impact of that advantage on competition between the US and Europe is also important.

From LNG imports to exports: Process safety and regulatory challenges
Chosnek, J., KnowledgeOne; Edwards, V. H., IHI E&C International Corp.

As natural gas becomes more abundant in the US, the demand for liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports is disappearing, while the need to find markets for domestic natural gas is increasing.

Bonus Report: Lubrication Practices

Update on lubrication systems
Bloch, Heinz P., Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

Several case histories illustrate the pros and cons for maintaining rotating equipment under various plant conditions.Example 1In late May 2013, a US oil-mist provider in one of the Great Lakes states..

Control moisture in ‘wetted’ rotating equipment
Barnes, M., Morgan, D., Des-Case Corp.

In turbomachinery, water is one of the most deleterious contaminants. Left unchecked, moisture can severely reduce the service life expectancy of oil-wetted rotating and reciprocating components by as..

Improve quality of lubricating fluids via filtration
Kroger, K. G., Puradyn Filter Technologies

Micro-sized dust particles, along with water, can ruin the best lubricating fluids. Contamination of lubricating fluids can occur due to the byproducts of combustion, metal wear, oxidation and more. T..

Plant Design

Wide design margins do not improve engineering
Toghraei, M., Engrowth Training

Engineers use design and safety factors in sizing and specifying instrumentation or major process equipment, such as pumps, valves and compressors. Design factors are applied to cover the uncertainty ..

Process Optimization

HCN distribution in sour water systems
Weiland, R. H., Hatcher, N. A., Optimized Gas Treating, Inc.; Jones, C. E., Optimized Gas Treating

Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is commonly present in refinery gases. Because of its low volatility and, to some extent, its acidity, it travels through amine and sour water systems in an unusual and, heretof..

Refining Developments

Decrease tube metal temperature in vacuum heaters

Various options for reducing the TMT of a vacuum heater, such as changing the transfer line size and adding extra surface area in the radiation and convection sections, are examined here. The best option generally depends on the limitations under which the heater operates with regard to the process requirements and the downstream equipment limitations and flexibility.

Optimize viscosity control in refining operations

Petroleum is one of the most important hydrocarbons in the global marketplace. It remains the primary source for liquid and transportation fuels, and it is the building block for product manufacturing..


Reliable gauges improve safety and reliability
Deane, J., WIKA Instrument

Caustic. Flammable. Corrosive. When these adjectives describe the agents that you work with every day, keeping them contained safely is of paramount concern. But what would you say if you knew that th..


HP Reliability: Was that a failure or ‘just a repair’?
Bloch, Heinz P., Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

Purists among reliability professionals are sometimes concerned about the accuracy of the measurement of the mean-time-between-failure (MTBF) of an asset. There are many ways to conduct this failure f..

HP Automation Strategies: ISA108 Intelligent Device Management focuses on work processes
Hollywood, Paula, ARC Advisory Group

Over the last decade, field instrumentation and analytical chemistry device suppliers have made tremendous progress incorporating value-added functionality into intelligent devices. This includes enha..

HP Boxscore Construction Analysis: Russian gas: The end of a monopoly and the beginning of a new era
Nichols, Lee, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

December 2013 saw the repeal of a 2006 law establishing Gazprom as the sole exporter of Russian gas. The amendment is part of Russia’s plan to double LNG exports by 2020 and grab crucial LNG market share in the Asia-Pacific region. However, Russia is not without stiff competition.

HP Viewpoint: Small-scale GTL to transform gas processing at oil fields
Baxter, I., CompactGTL

Iain Baxter is the business development director for CompactGTL. A natural gas and GTL expert, Mr. Baxter discusses his outlook for GTL worldwide, particularly with regard to small-scale liquids production from associated gas.

HP Water Management: Best practices for RO operations
Huchler, L. A., MarTech Systems, Inc.

Widespread use of reverse osmosis (RO) technology in industrial applications began in the late 1980s, following the introduction of polyamide materials that had a significantly higher permeate flow an..

HP News
Thinnes, Billy, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

US, Norway seek to improve CO2 capture The US and Norway have announced their commitment to support the global carbon capture and storage (CCS) test center network. In a joint release, the two co..

HP News: Process safety pioneer passes away
Edwards, D. W., Granherne

   Trevor Kletz was a giant   in the field of process safety.  One of the founders and leaders of process safety in thought and practice, Professor Trevor Kletz, died on ..

HP Innovations
Blume, Adrienne, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

Standardization aids gas compressionMidstream companies traditionally build a few compressor stations in a year, with periodic upgrades to implement new instrumentation technology, increase compressio..

HP People
Thinnes, Billy, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

Melissa Hockstad has joined The American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM) as vice president of petrochemicals. Ms. Hockstad comes to AFPM as the association expands its petrochemical divisi..

New Developments
Meche, Helen, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

Precision temperature scanner delivers accuracy for critical measurements  Fluke Calibration’s 1586A Super-DAQ precision temperature scanner offers up to 40 analog input channels, along with..

Free Literature
Meche, Helen, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

Workman winch is high-performance economical choice MSA’s new workman winch for lifting, lowering and positioning personnel and materials within confined-space applications offers a maximum ..


Chemical-grade operation—or not?
Romanow, Stephany, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

The quality of transportation fuels has evolved. Earlier, the fuel quality was based on octane to power larger engines for automobiles and cetane for commercial trucks. As lead was phased out of gasol..

Process Automation 2013 Supplement

Human-machine interfaces are the future of petrochemical refining
Foster, C., Valin Corp.

 Corey Foster represents Valin Corp. in the Northern California automation market. Valin is a technical solutions provider for the technology, energy, life sciences, natural resources and transpo..

Automation news in brief
Thinnes, Billy, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

Honeywell seeks to fully integrate terminal operationsHoneywell has announced its next generation terminal manager server software, offering full integration of fire and gas, closed-circuit television..