July 2008


Special Report: Process/Plant Optimization

LNG technology—The next chapter

Technical challenges of new plants will involve the sizing of trains, construction cost controls, onshore vs. offshore, energy efficiencies and environment

Developing mid-scale LNG projects from the contractor's perspective

Modular liquefaction methods reduce construction and operating costs for smaller reserve developments

Bonus Report: Alternative Energy Sources

What are the market opportunities for carbon dioxide?
Beaubien, R., Bradford, M., Jacobs Consultancy

Recovery of greenhouse gases has potential positive economics benefits

Consider gasification to meet electrical power needs
Domenichini, R., Mancuso, L., Foster Wheeler Italiana Spa

Conversion of refinery bottom-of-the-barrel products can provide hydrogen and power requirements cost-effectively

Accurately predict viscosity of syncrude blends
Ha, H. Z., Koppel, P., Fluor Canada Ltd.

An evaluation for mixing rules uncovers potential errors in fluid transportation of bitumen-based feeds

Large-scale, coal-to-chemicals production nears reality
Vail, T., Synthesis Energy Systems Inc.

China's utilization of well-established gasification technology turns low-rank and waste coal into valuable feedstocks for high-demand products


Repair of a corroded vessel skirt subjected to an overturning moment
Ayari, H., Morand, F., Truong, K.T., Ultragen Ltd.

A parametric finite element model was used to determine the most economical solution


FOUNDATION technology: solution for plant safety instrumented functions
Greil, G., TÜV SÜD

Here are the considerations for applying this fieldbus in these applications

Piping/Fluid Flow

An improved experimental correlation for Darcy friction factor
Cordero, G. O., Techint Engineering & Construction

The pressure drop estimate may be on the unsafe side when using the traditional Moody chart


Competency framework for refinery process engineers
Ranade, S. M., RWD Technologies LLC

A new method can be used to create a learning curriculum, provide career guidance and build a knowledge repository


Climate change and computer models
Kane, L., Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

Apparently some of the climate scientists that are claiming the earth is going through a period of climate change/global warming caused primarily by human activity (mostly burning fossil fuels that pu..


HP Reliability: Notes from a consulting assignment
Bloch, Heinz P., Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

 "Machine failed; how do we fix it?" As a consulting engineer, one often gets this type of request. Unfortunately, the client sometimes has neither the time nor the interest to elicit the consult..

HP Automation Safety: Accounting for process connections in SIS design
Goble, W., exida LLC

 Many safety instrumented system (SIS) designers understand what happens when the process connection to a pressure transmitter gets plugged. The transmitter output will likely get very sluggish a..

HP Integration Strategies: Managing your asset information assets

SID SNITKIN, Contributing editor       Comments? Write: editorial@HydrocarbonProcessing.com Demand is at all time highs,..

HPIn Europe: Cloaks, daggers and the mystery of the missing NGLs
Wright, Tim L., Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

I had an unsettling conversation at a conference in southern Europe recently with an American who works for a major European oil company. He's a likeable, positive guy whose role bridges term contract..

HPIn LNG: Will LNG liquefaction project development prosper?
Phalen, T., Fluor Corp.

Since 1995, the volumes of liquefied natural gas (LNG) delivered have risen at a rate of over 7%/yr. Forecasts indicate that LNG deliveries will continue to grow at this rate over the foreseeable futu..

New Developments

Handheld universal verbalizer multimeter The OMEGASAYS UV1000 is claimed to measure 0-Vdc to 10-Vdc voltage, 0-mA to 20-mA current and Type-K thermocouple inputs. It verbalizes them in any range with ..

HP Associations: Association news in brief
Thinnes, Billy, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

Red Cavaney to retire Red Cavaney will step down November 1, 2008, from his role as president and CEO of the American Petroleum Institute (API). Ja..

HP Construction: North America
Thinnes, Billy, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

URS Corp. has a contract with ExxonMobil to provide detailed engineering, procurement and construction management services for a commercial demonstration plant using ExxonMobil technology. The techno..

HP Construction: South America
Thinnes, Billy, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

BG Group plc and Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (Petrobras) have signed two liquefied natural gas (LNG) agreements. Under the agreements, BG Group will supply the import terminals being built by Petrobras ..

HP Construction: Middle East
Thinnes, Billy, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

Saudi Aramco and Total have awarded Axens a design package for the new 400,000 bpd full-conversion refinery in Jubail, Saudi Arabia. The refining and petrochemical complex is scheduled to start-up i..

HP Construction: Asia-Pacific
Thinnes, Billy, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

BILLY THINNES, News Editor       Comments? Write: BT@HydrocarbonProcessing.com SK Energy is joining with China Petroleum & ..

Free Literature

Sensor selection resource Pepperl+Fuchs' 2008–2009 North American Sensor Catalog and Selection Guide details its complete family of capacitive, inductive, weld immune, special app..

HP In Brief: HPIn Brief
Weirauch, Wendy, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

BP's annual energy analysis The world's fossil fuel resource base remains sufficient to support growing levels of production, but industry continue..

HP Impact: HPImpact: First East Coast US LNG facility in 30 years receives cargo
Weirauch, Wendy, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

In mid-May, a state-of-the-art vessel arrived at the new Northeast Gateway Deepwater LNG port, officially beginning the facility's commercial operations. Operating approximately 18 mi east of Boston i..

HP Impact: HPImpact: US refiners to spend $15 billion capitalizing on Canada's heavy oil
Weirauch, Wendy, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

A new industry report examines whether planned investments in the midstream and downstream will be sufficient to accommodate growing volumes of Canadian oil sands production. The analysis, from Wood M..

HP Impact: HPImpact: Refined product use rising; oil prices keep margins in check
Weirauch, Wendy, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

New research from Purvin & Gertz analyzes demand for refined products in the context of emerging trends in biofuels, alternative fuels, vehicle preference and government mandates. Key conclusions of t..

HP Impact: HPImpact: Smaller firms compete for large projects by harnessing 3D design
Weirauch, Wendy, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

3D plant design systems have fundamentally transformed the plant creation and operations business by enabling a greater number of smaller businesses to undertake large projects that previously were th..

HP Impact: HPImpact: Key indicators reveal outlook for HPI products
Weirauch, Wendy, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

The American Chemistry Council (ACC) regularly reviews various economic and statistical reports to keep a running tab on significant indicators—both positive and negative—impacting the hydro..

HP Impact: HPImpact: Scientists patent new microbial source for biofuels
Weirauch, Wendy, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

A newly created microbe produces cellulose that can be turned into ethanol and other biofuels, report scientists from The University of Texas at Austin. They say that the microbe could provide a signi..

HP Impact: HPImpact: Feedstock options for second-generation biodiesel mixes
Weirauch, Wendy, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

The global market for biodiesel is poised for "explosive growth" in the next 10 years, according to a new outlook from Emerging Markets Online (www.emerging-markets.com). Although Europe represents 80..

HP Impact: HPImpact: Analysis: five forces to shape energy expansion for decades
Weirauch, Wendy, Hydrocarbon Processing Staff

A new white paper by Dr. Joseph A. Stanislaw, independent advisor to Deloitte's Energy & Resources group, explores the forces molding relations between countries and the private sector as they vie for..

Letters to the Editor

Letters to the Editor

On contract engineers Regarding the May 2008 "HPIn Reliability" column: very interesting text, especially from a side that is normally seen as specific equipment related! I'm a project engineer/proje..


Optimize LNG plant reliability
Abdul Rahman, J., Petronas LNG Complex Sdn Bhd; Beeby, C., Shell Technology India Pvt Ltd.; Den Bakker, K., Parra Calvache , M., Shell Global Solutions International BV

Controlling heat exchanger cool-down increases efficiency and availability