April 2021

Special Focus: Clean Fuels

Meeting the Tier 3 challenge with ultra-clean alkylate

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced Tier 3 gasoline sulfur standards in 2017, requiring all U.S. gasoline producers to adhere to an annual 10-ppm average sulfur limit.

Griffiths, E., KBR; Mukherjee, M., Exelus, Inc.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced Tier 3 gasoline sulfur standards in 2017, requiring all U.S. gasoline producers to adhere to an annual 10-ppm average sulfur limit. A 3-yr extension was provided for about 30 small refineries, which expired on January 1, 2020. The program includes a 6-yr provision allowing refineries that cannot produce qualifying gasoline to buy credits from other refineries to comply with the Tier 3 requirement. The credits are generated by refineries producing gasoline with an annual sulfur content below 10 ppm. At the end of October 2019, the price of these credits increased by 250%, indicating that demand for the credits were possibly greater tha

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